The Mughal Empire, also known as the Moghul Empire, lasted for about three centuries, and at its peak, it covered 3.2 million square kilometers, from the outer borders of the Indus Basin in the west to the highlands of Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and from Afghanistan and Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south. The Mughal Empire also took the territories of what used to be known as Hindustan in the northern Indian subcontinent. With such a large territory came many diverse peoples, roughly numbering 150 million souls. The name “Mughal” comes from the Persian word for Mongols, which, over time, came to mean only the Islamic people of Babur’s dynasty in India.
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